从先锋到当代-捷克摄影第二回

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从先鋒到当代-捷克摄影聯展第二回 

2015.07.23-09.13
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2012年的秋冬转换之际,我们以《可能世界的幻象-当代捷克摄影》之名,将7位杰出的捷克当代攝影師作品带进了中国观众的视野,随即所引发的一股旋风,至今仍在回荡。而此次我们将再次梳理从十九世纪末至今捷克摄影史上10位各具风格的重要摄影师的作品。追溯历史,有助于我们找寻和理解当代摄影師们是如何沿袭了欧洲视觉传统并与他们的前辈联系起来。
 
捷克共和国有着深厚的摄影传统,是名副其实的摄影强国。德国,法国和苏联通常被认为是先锋艺术的中流砥柱,而其实捷克斯洛伐克才是先锋艺术摄影的先驱。像弗兰蒂泽克·德瑞提科,杰罗米·芬克和雅罗斯拉夫·罗斯勒这样的先锋攝影大师早在二战时期便已发展成形了。捷克摄影前辈们与德国和苏联的摄影師們齐头并进,拓展了新客观主义、构成主义和超现实主义的概念,他们不仅为捷克摄影带来了世界声誉,也深深地影響着战后新一代摄影师。本世纪80年代以来,更多奇妙的拍摄风格已经在这里形成和发展,这些顶尖的捷克摄影師的作品,在过去及现在都早已闻名于全球。
 
首先我们要介绍的是三位殿堂级摄影大师:弗兰蒂泽克·德瑞提科  ,杰罗米·芬克和雅罗斯拉夫·罗斯勒,他们已经在全世界范围影响了无数的摄影师。  
 
弗兰蒂泽克·德瑞提科 František Drtikol (1883–1961年) 是第一代怀有艺术野心的专业摄影师,也是捷克首位获得国际声誉的摄影师,他相信“一件艺术有一千种形式”,这正是为什么他创作了很多不同类型和不同主题的作品。第一次世界大战后,捷克斯洛伐克的独立,迎来了新一波的艺术摄影浪潮。德瑞提科和奥古斯丁·司卡达Augustin Skarda¹ 共同创办的工作室成为捷克文化艺术的中心和精英们的集结地,德瑞提科自此开启了他对新艺术起源和象征主义,也包括未来主义,表现主义和立体派的向往,并成为他毕生的兴趣所在。从1923年开始,他将裸体和几何装饰与阴影组合在一起,之后又将女人的裸体与女性的命运和女神相比较(女神是贵族女性的化身)。斯大林政权 (1924-1953年) 对艺术摄影设置了重重的禁忌,一批重要的艺术家被批评为所谓的形式主义,是脱离群众、远离意识形态需要的,他们也同样不允许发布裸体、静物的实验摄影,因為他们被认为是堕落的。显而易见,在那个年代德瑞提科的裸体摄影是非常大胆的。在德瑞提科的作品中经常带有一些象征主义,他将其描述为他对佛教的理解。他的生活和艺术始终都与神学、人类学和佛教紧密相连。他是一位修行者,其灵修方式在他的作品中得到了充分的体现,并最终使他停止了摄影。 
 
杰罗米·芬克 Jaromír Funke (1896-1945年) 是另一位在捷克先锋艺术中非常重要的人物。捷克的抽象摄影开始于1918-1939年,布拉格更是立体派的中心之一。1920年代芬克开始拍摄风景,直到1922年他转向了抽象主义,也是在那一年他与约瑟夫·苏德克 Josef Sudek² 和阿道夫·斯尼波卡 Adolf Schneeberger³ 建立了捷克摄影协会。芬克简单的静物作品使实体抽象成为了可能。拍摄日常物体时,他并没有对准焦点,物体的映像和影子成为了照片更重要的部分,他的作品经常以所谓的“动态对焦”为其特征。在他1927-1929年的“抽象摄影”系列里,光的使用成为主题,其作品主要受到建构主义和新即物主义的影响。之后,他也成为了捷克超现实主义摄影大师。
 
时代的变迁影响着艺术的进程。两次世界大战之间的这一代捷克艺术家,受到国际上的影响,同样也形成了前卫艺术。雅罗斯拉夫·罗斯勒 Jaroslav Rössler (1902-1990年) 远远超过他的同辈人,他与欧文·昆登菲尔德 Erwin Queenfeldt⁴, 保罗·斯特兰德 Paul Strand⁵, 阿尔文·兰登 Alvin Langdon⁶, 弗朗西·普汝盖维尔 Pranci Pruguiere⁷ 以及抽象摄影的先驱曼·雷 May Ray⁸ 齐名。罗斯勒15岁开始作为助手在弗兰蒂泽克·德瑞提科工作室工作,在那里他学习了摄影技术和对摄影的理解。之后,因为他强烈的形式主义和审美信仰,同样也影响了他的老师。他早期的作品与建构主义相关。除了抽象静物,罗斯勒也是最早把光变成了摄影的主题。他对日常物体的组合深受立体主义的影响。值得一提的是,达达运动在德国进行时,克雷尔·泰治 Karel Teigel⁹ 为首的前卫艺术小组“瘟疫”,创作了充满诗意的拼贴画,摄影是其中重要的部分,而罗斯勒是该组织里唯一的专业摄影师。 到了赫鲁晓夫时代(1953-1964年),这位新晋领导人在苏共第二十届代表大会上的激情演讲,开启了现代艺术的新时代。1958年“捷克斯洛伐克年轻艺术家作品展”掀起了实验摄影的第二个高潮。
 
1950年代末,简·索德克 Jan Saudek (1935年-) 得到了一本爱德华·斯泰肯 Edward Steichen¹⁰展览的画册“人类一家”¹¹,受到画册里图片的启发,他开始尝试人文摄影。他所渴望和梦想的正是那样像纪录片一样的作品,而后,如同人们看到的那样,他与自身相关联的一系列创作成为了其作品符号。然而,50年代的捷克斯洛伐克还处在斯大林主义时代,“那是一段恶梦般的岁月”,索德克回忆说,直到60年代以后才开始了改变。之后索德克的摄影表达了70年代的現象,他从1977年他开始对自己的黑白作品进行手工着色,将作品带入了超现实主义镜像。然而,他在自己的国家被禁长达二十年之久,虽然那时他在美国和除了捷克斯洛伐克以外的很多欧洲国家已经获得了成功,直到1989年苏联解体,他的作品才得以向公众展示。如今他已经成为捷克共和国在国际上最有名的摄影师之一,一部关于他一生的电影已经在今年公映。
 
进入1980年代,第二代编导式摄影的崛起成为一大特色,一批才华横溢的年轻摄影师随即涌现。
 
米罗·索维克 Miro Švolík (1960年-) 诗歌般的作品是在主流以外的,比起极其严肃的摄影,他的作品显得没有责任感,而且充满了后现代玩乐主义。他让人物在地面上摆出不同的姿势,再加上水和沙子,使他们成为生动有趣的画面,這让人回想起先锋派的拼贴画,作品全部采用了俯拍。这些创作始于FAMU一个摄影学生的毕业项目,但之后却给他带来了国际上的赞誉,纽约摄影的中心 (ICP) 给他颁发了最佳年轻摄影师奖。索维克近期的作品是一组肖像,他安排了一组人,有公司职员,学生等等,除了他独有的表现方法,他还调动了摄影的所有模式来进行创作。
 
就在同一个时期,伊万·品卡瓦 Ivan Pinkava (1961年-) 从1986年起开始拍摄编导式人物和静物,那些双目紧闭的半身像,是向他最爱的作家和哲人致敬。其作品始终围绕着关于生命和死亡存在意义的主题。欧洲传统绘画与雕塑、颓废文学、象征主义、以及圣经中的主题和古典神话等,都对他的创作产生了深刻影响。“在某种程度品卡瓦的作品涉及了时间的一切寓言,以及清晰的转化。在这里,时间被投入到人类经验的光环里。这是一个主题,它创造了空间和神话,但也是破坏性的。再从两个角度 — 当下 (个人) 和历史 (距离) — 品卡瓦带来了控制下的保守序列,对时间的感知在人类的意识和经验裡。时间是空间的解释,也是一个空间隐藏 (伪装) 的意义。”Petr Vaňous¹²说。
 
简·派瑞比尼 Jan Pohribný (1961年-) 属于捷克为数不多的另类摄影家之一,他从1980年中期的早期作品起,就致力于拍摄现在不常有的风景主题,他捕捉的是风景中永恒的符号,它们盘旋在风景艺术与传统美学摄影的边界。通过在拍摄风景时以彩色光线绘画,他将对于风景的古典概念与编导和动作联系起来,让拍摄地点的光环以及动感大地的能量得以显现。
 
瓦茨拉夫·叶拉塞克 Václav Jirásek (1965年-) 的摄影从社会主义写实派逐渐转变成了重新定义基督教传统、神秘主义以及颓废浪漫主义,其作品描绘的是毁灭、腐烂、死亡和由此引发的人类反应。“他创造性地将欧洲传统的哀愁以及对于媚俗审美的后现代挑逗加入到他编导式摄影的细节中。”Tomáš Pospěch¹³说。叶拉塞克是Bratrstvo成员,这是一个兄弟会,一个以叶拉塞克为领军人物的试图挑战政治不确定现状的艺术团体。叶拉塞克已被称为捷克当代最精致的摄影师。
 
沃塔齐·V. 斯拉玛 Vojtěch V. Sláma (1965年-) 内在的需要是旅行。他去过很多地方,无论是魁北克、印度,还是巴黎,对他来说这些都是独特的机会,使其对已经深思熟虑的事情有一个新的视角,从而赶走常规,对未来产生新的渴望,他自我反思的照片就像日记一样。沃塔齐通过摄影传输了自己的生活状态和与他密不可分的家人以及朋友,它们就像他生活中一个个微小但特别的时刻。沃塔齐2009年毕业于创意摄影研究所,他是影片“Ceska Paralaxa”¹⁴的发起人之一,这也是他使用双透镜反射相机的开始,直到今天这种相机仍是他最重要的摄影工具,尽管已经并不仅仅局限于它。
特丽莎·沃克娃 Tereza Vlčková ( 1983年- ),她不仅是捷克最重要的年轻艺术摄影家,在国际上也非常受欢迎。她的作品超越了摄影媒介的界限,已经触及到了更广泛的艺术背景。这位女性摄影师创造的一系列彩色摄影作品,通过对形式和技术的改进,不僅给观者带来强烈的震撼,而且通过它们神秘的谐调来照亮内在的自我,提出令人不安的问题。她迄今为止最著名的系列是《完美的一天,爱丽丝》( 2007 ),《两个》( 2007-2008 ) 和《镜子里面》( 2008-2009 )。在这些系列里,她漫不经心的摆弄着一个女孩或一个女人的画面,将她们植入到一个個梦境般的环境中,每一个场景都經她巧妙的安排过。她的创作通常挑战“美”的界限,并且不断地为自己的幻想寻找新的可能性和路径。
 
以上这些捷克的后辈摄影师,每部作品都是对其前辈们的回应,每张照片都包含了之前所有的摄影经验,以及对于经典的敬意。
 
在此我要特别感谢简·派瑞比尼 Jan Pohribný 和马格达琳娜·派瑞比尼 Magdalena Pohribna,没有他们夫妇无私的帮助,不可能有2012年和2015年这两次捷克摄影大展。我们结缘于2010年首尔国际摄影节,接下来通过我们不懈的努力,共同架起了捷克和中国的摄影之桥,让越来越多的捷克摄影大师走进了中国观众视野,同时也让捷克读者开始了解了一批中国杰出的摄影家。
 
 
2015年7月2日于深圳华侨城杜鹃阁
 
 
1. 奥古斯丁·司卡达  (1871-1937 年),捷克摄影师,曾与弗兰蒂泽克·德瑞提科共同开办了一個摄影工作室。 
2. 约瑟夫·苏德克 (1896-1976年),现代主义摄影大师。第一次世界大战之后跟随杰罗米·芬克学习摄影。他是画意摄影的代表人物,被称为“布拉格的诗人”。
3. 阿道夫·斯尼波卡 (1897-1977 年),捷克摄影师,相機工程师。与杰罗米·芬克和斯尼波卡一起成立了“捷克摄影协会”。
4. 欧文·昆登菲尔德 (1869-1949年),德国摄影师,相機工程师和发明家。1901-1923在莱茵河大学执教摄影。他是二十世纪初非常重要的摄影师,其作品深受收藏家们喜爱。
5. 保罗·斯特兰德 (1890-1976年),美国现代主义摄影大师和导演。在二十世纪初推动了摄影成为艺术。他以拍摄的一组纽约的现代主义风格作品最为著名。
6. 阿尔文·兰登·寇伯恩 (1882-1966年),美国摄影师,画意摄影的重要人物,最早的抽象摄影家。1907被称為“世界上最好的摄影师”,那时候他24岁。
7. 弗朗西·普汝盖维尔 (1879-1945年),美国摄影师,雕塑家,画家和导演。以拍摄1906年旧金山的“地震” 系列而闻名。
8. 曼·雷 (1890-1979年),美国艺术家,在法国生活了很长时间。他是达达主义和超现实主义非常重要的人物。他是综合型艺术家,并以他的摄影最有著名,他发明的一种摄影体被称为“rayographs” (雷摄影) 。
9. 克雷尔·泰治 (1900-1951年),捷克前卫艺术非常重要的人物。他是平面设计师,摄影师和字体艺术家。他策划过很多重要展览和活动,并出版了一个杂志。
10. 爱德华·斯泰肯 (1879-1973年),出生在卢森堡的美国摄影师,与阿尔弗雷德·斯蒂格里茨一起开办了一个叫“291”的摄影画廊。二战之后担任纽约当代艺术美术馆 (MOMA) 摄影部主任。
11. 《人類一家》, 是由爱德华·斯泰肯策劃的一個大型攝影展覽,他从全世界征集的200万份稿件中,精选出68个国家273位作者的500幅作品,展覽在全世界範圍巡展,與此同時,出版了同名畫冊,使之成为世界摄影界的一 大“叙事诗”。
12. Petr Vaňous (1976年- ),捷克当代策展人,艺术历史学家,评论家。
13.Tomáš Pospěch (1974- ),捷克艺术史学家,策展人,摄影师,教授。
14. Ceska Paralaxa,捷克摄影小组,成立于1995年。该小组的准则是用双透镜反射相机。
 
 
 
 

Avant-Garde and Contemporary

Czech Photography II

2015.07.23 - 09.13


In the spring of 2012 we introduced with the exhibition "Phantasm of a possible world - Czech Contemporary Photography" seven outstanding contemporary Czech photographers to the Chinese audience. The exhibition evoked a whirlwind, which has continued to this day. This time we again combed through the photographic history of the Czech Republic and will present the works of the 10 most important photographers from the Avant-Garde until today.


The Czech Republic has a long tradition of photography. It is indeed a photography-nation. Thinking of Avant-Garde art Germany, France and the Soviet Union are the key-players, but for Avant-Garde photography Czechoslovakia was one of the forerunners. The Avant-Garde photographers František Drtikol, Jaromír Funke, and Jaroslav Rössler developed a distinctive style in the time during the two world wars. This generation of photographers together with the photographers of Germany and the Soviet Union developed the concepts of New Objectivity, Constructivism, and Surrealism. They brought Czech photography world renown and influenced the after-war generation of photographers immensely. Since the 1980s even more marvelous photographic styles developed. The works of these fine photographers dating from the Avant-Garde until today are well-known in the whole world today.


First we want to introduce the three masters of photography: František Drtikol, Jaromír Funke, and Jaroslav Rössler. They have influenced so many photographers to this day.


František Drtikol (1883-1961) was one of the first generation photographers that practiced photography as an art form and was the first Czech photographer to claim international recognition. He believed that "One art, athousand forms", which is the reason for the various changes in style and topic in his work. Because of the new independence of Czechoslovakia after the First World War, a new wave of art photography took place. The co-owned photo studio of František Drtikol and Augustin Skarda became the cultural center and a meeting place of the elite. From then on Drtikol started to work with Art Noveau and Symbolism, but also included the concepts of Futurism, Expressionism, and Cubism, which stayed his interest for the rest of his life. Starting from 1923 he combined put bodies against geometric decorations and shadows. He then contrasted the body of the woman, the fate of the female and the female goddess (the female goddess was Calocagathia, the female personification of nobility). The Stalinist regime (1924- 1953) manifested more and more prohibitions; some of the most important artists were criticized for alleged formalism, which was considered incomprehensible to the masses and far from the ideology needs. They also didn’t allow nudes, still-lives, or experimental photography, because they thought it as "decadent". Therefore Drtikol’s  nude photography was very daring for the time. The images of Drtikol often carry a certain symbolism, which already depicts his interest for Buddhism. His life and art have always been closely connected to theosophy, anthropology, and Buddhism. He later became a Buddhist monk and his spirituality was embodied in his works, until he completely stopped with photography.


Jaromír Funke (1896-1945) was very important for the Avant-garde photography. The Czech abstract- photography started in 1918-1939 and Prague became a center of Cubism. In the 1920s Funke still worked with pictorial landscape and it wasn’t until 1922 that he changed to constructivist compositions. In that year he founded together with Josef Sudek and Adolf Schneeberger the Czech Photographic Society. His simple still-lives show the possibility of making the reality abstract. Using everyday objects, he did not put the object itself in focus, but their reflection and shadow became of greater importance. While his works are mostly influenced by Constructivism and New Objectivity, he was later also one of the only Czech photographers making surrealistic works. The political changes again influenced the art practice. In between the two world wars the artists received a lot of international influence and contemporaneously developed Avant-Garde art. 


Jaroslav Rössler (1902-1990) was far ahead of his contemporaries. He was together with Erwin Queenfeldt, Paul Strand, Alvin Langdon, Francis Pruguiere and Man Ray one of the pioneers of abstract photography. At the age of fifteen he started a working in the studio of František Drtikol as an assistant, where he obtained his technique and understanding of photography. He would later also influence his teacher with his strong formalistic and aesthetic believes. His early works are associated with Constructivism. Besides his abstract still lives, Rössler was one of the first photographers making light the center of his attention. The compositions with found everyday objects were influenced by Cubism. Worth noting is further, while the Dada movement started in Germany Karel Teige, the leader of the Czech Avant-garde association Devětsil invited him to join as the only professional photographer. Devětsil are known for their poetic collages, where photography was an important part. 


In the Khrushchev era (1953 -1964), this newly promoted leader's speech at the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party opened up a new era for modern art. The exhibition in 1958 "The Art of the Young Artists of Czechoslovakia" started the second bloom of experimental photography.


At the end of the 1950s Jan Saudek got a hold of catalogue of Steichen's exhibition "The Family Man". Inspired by the photographs he started his own tries at humanistic photography. Saudek's photography is characterized by his desires and dreams. Arranging the photos like documentary, he consequently connected to himself transforming them into symbols. But in the 50s Czechoslovakia was still in the Stalinist era. "These were years of nightmare" Saudek remembers this time. Only after the 60s one could feel a change. His photographs express the phenomenon of the 70s. In 1977 he started to hand-tint his black and white prints, which brought the images even further into a state of surrealist romanticism. Due to the laws in his home country, he showed his work in the USA and many other countries outside of Czech Republic and became rather famous. But wasn't before 1989, when the Soviet Union ended, that his works could be shown publicly. He today belongs to one of the internationally best-known photographers of Czech Republic. A movie about

his life has just been released this year.


Entering the 1980s the second rise of photography turned into a period characterized by its large amount of new talents emerging.


Miro Švolík’s (1960 - ) poetic works are outside of the mainstream. Compared with the very serious photography, his photography seems to have no sense of responsibility, and posses a post-modern playfulness. He places human figures on the ground in different arrangements and then adds silhouettes with watercolors and sand, which remind of the collages of the Avant-Garde. It started out as the final project as a student at the Department of Photography at FAMU, but then gave him international recognition. The Center of Photography, New York gave him the award for Best Young Photographer. His recent series are group portraits. Švolík arranges groups of people, e.g. employees of companies, school students, etc. using different modes of photography, but still staying in his distinctive mode of representation.


At the same time around 1986 Ivan Pinkava (1961- ) started to make staged portraits and still-lives. He dedicated a series of half-length portraits of people with their eyes closed, to his most admired authors and philosophers. His works deal with existential themes of the meaning of life and death and are highly influenced by European classical painting and sculpture, literature, Symbolism, as well as the Christianity and Mythology.


"Everything in Pinkava’s œuvre in some way touches upon the allegorical nature of time, its articulation and transformation. Here, time is put into the light of human experience. It is observed as a motif that creates space and myth, but is also destructive. Again from two angles – the immediate (personal) and the historical (from a distance) – Pinkava brings under control the consequences that the perception of time has for human consciousness and experience. Time is a space of interpretation and also a space of concealing (disguising) meanings. " Petr Vaňous


Jan Pohribný (1961- ) is another Czech photographer, that started in the early 1980s. He devoted himself to taking photographs of unusual landscapes. He captures timeless symbols of landscape. They exist somewhere between landscape art and traditional academic photography. He succeeds traditional landscape photography by painting with light. This way he combines the classical concepts of nature with that of a choreographer. The movements of the light reveal the place’ s energy of mother earth.


Václav Jirásek’s (1965 - ) photography gradually developed from a socialist realism into a photography defined by Christianity, Mysticism, and Romanticism. His work depict ruin, decay and death and the human response they provoke. Tomáš Pospěch said: " He inventively works the European tradition of pathos and the postmodern flirtation with the aesthetics of kitsch into the details of his staged photos."He was a leading figure in Bratrstvo (brotherhood), an organization that tried to challenge the undefined status quo of the politics. Jirasek has been called the most exquisite photographer of Czech Republic.


Vojtěch VSláma’s (1974 - ) inherent need is travelling. He travels a lot; whether it is Quebec, India or Paris; for the author it is always a unique opportunity to acquire a new view of well-thought-out things, to chase away routine and to find a fresh desire for further production. His self-reflexive photos are like diaries. Vojtěch transports the intimacy of his own life and family and friends circle through his photography. They are like little glimpse of a special moment in his life. He graduated from the Institute of Creative Photography in 2009. Vojtěch is also cofounder of the photo group "Ceska Paralaxa" , where also his use of the double-lens reflex camera originates. It is the paramount tool for his photography until today, even though it is not limited to it.


Tereza Vlčková (1983 - ) is one of the most significant photography artists of the young artistic scene not only on the Czech soil – also internationally. Her work exceeds boundaries of the photographic medium and her photographs are in contact with a broader artistic context. The authoress creates within the series of color photographs, which powerfully attack the viewer not only by their formal and technical refinement, but also by their mysteriously tuned content brightening up the inner self and raising disturbing questions. Her best- known series to date include A Perfect Day, Elise... (2007), Two (2007-2008), and Mirrors Inside (2008-2009).

She toys with images of a girl or a woman being in these series, planting them into a dreamlike landscape environment. She ingeniously stages every image. Her creative work is often consciously testing the borders of the "beauty". She is constantly looking for new possibilities and paths for her visions.


Their predecessors have influenced the younger generation of photographers immensely. Every photograph incorporates the experiences of the photographers from before and pays tribute to them.


At this point I want to thank Jan Pohribný and Magdalena Pohribna. If it wasn’t for their selfless help the exhibitions in 2012 and 2015 would have not been possible. We first met at the International Photography Festival in Seoul in 2010. With our endless efforts we build a bridge of photography between Czech Republic and China. We introduced more and more Czech masters of photography to a Chinese audience, and at the same time we let Czech readers get to know some outstanding Chinese photographers.


Hua Er

Shenzhen OCT   2nd July 2015






1. AUGUSTIN SKARDA ( 1871 - 1937 ), Czech photographer. Opened together with Drtikol a photography studio and worked with him very closely.


2. JOSEF SUDEK (1896 -1976) was a modernist photographer. After WWI he studied under Jaromir Funke. Worked in a romantic Pictorialist style.. He was known as "the Poet of Prague".


3. ADOLF SCHNEEBERGER (1897 - 1977 ) studied engineering and photography at the Czech Technical University in Prague, 1914. Both co-founded the Czech Photographic Society with Funke.


4. ERWIN QUEENFELDT (1869 - 1949) was a German photography engineer, photographer and Inventor. He was the director of the photography school “ Rheinische Lehr - und Versuchsanstalt für Photographie” (Institute of Photography at the Rhein) 1901-1923. He was an important photographer of the beginning of the 20th century and is highly regarded by collectors.


5. PAUL STRAND (1890 - 1976) was an American modernist photographer and filmmaker that established photography as an art form in the 20th century. He is best known for his modernist photography of New York City.


6. ALVIN LANGDON COBURN (1882 - 1966) was an American photographer, who was an important protagonist for the development of American Pictorialism. He made some of the first completely abstract photographs. In he was called “ the greatest photographer in the world”, Coburn was 24 at the time.


7. FRANCIS PRUGUIERE (1879 - 1945) was an American photographer, sculptor, painter and filmmaker. His series of the earthquake in San Francisco in 1906 is his most famous.


8. MAY RAY (1890 - 1979) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements. He produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all, but he was best known for his photography. Man Ray is also noted for his work with photograms, which he called "rayographs" in reference to himself.


9. KAREL TEIGE (1900 - 1951) was a major figure in the Czech Avant-Garde movement. He was a graphic artist, photographer, and typographer. With endless effort he introduced modern art to Prague through exhibitions, a magazine, and events.


10. EDWARD STEICHEN (1897-1973), Luxembourgian American photographer. He founded together with Alfred Steglitz the gallery 291. After WW II he was head of the Photography Department of the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) New York.


11. "The Family Man", Steichen collected 2 million documents from all over the world and chose 273 people from 68 contries. 500 photos then were published in a catalogue. It became a ballad to the world of photography.


12. PETR VAŇOUS (1976 - ), Czech contemporary curator, art historian and art critic. Speicalized in Czech photography.


13. TOMÁŠ POSPĚCH (1974 - ) is Czech art historian, photographer, artist, independent curator and teacher.


14. CESKA PARALAXA, Czech photo group founded in 1995, using the double-lens 6 × 6 cm reflex camera.


 

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